The Natural History Museum was founded in 1691 with the Accademia dei Fisiocritici founded by Pirro Maria G (1643-1705). The Museum has a prominent role in achieving institutional goals of promotion and dissemination of science. Main features of the Museum are the historical and scientific aspect of the collections, the regional representativeness, especially of Southern Tuscany, the acquisition of artifacts through donations made mainly in XVIII-XIX centuries by mainly the same scholars who formed. Even today, the exposition has been typical of that period, that is the definition of "Museum of the Museum". The Museum is divided into two main sections and Geological, Zoological, plus the Anatomical and Botanical section. Other Museum heritage consists of: collection, paletnologica Collection, standard collection of mineral waters of the province of Siena, Eliometri, vacuum Machine, Planetarium, relics of the Academy. In the years 1935-1938 are made of the entire Museum heritage inventories. After the second world war the Museum is closed to the public and is officially reopened in 1972, following refurbishment of the venue. In 1991 it published the first guide of the Museum in conjunction with the reordering of the Geological Section. Begins the process of computerization of the collections that arrives, since 2004, to put some network according to the catalogues of museum standards and to achieve a path of touch screens, digital photo frames and handhelds for visitors that extend accessibility for the disabled.