With assets of approximately two million volumes, 20,000 manuscripts, more than 8,000 periodicals, 4,500 incunabula and 1,800 Papyri ercolanensi is, for consistency, the third biblioteca italiana after the two Central National of Rome and Florence. The origins date back to the late 18th century when in the Palazzo degli Studi, now home to the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, book collections were gathered from the Reggia di Capodimonte, including the Farnese library Carlo di Borbone who had inherited from his mother, Elisabetta Farnese. The heritage was enriched later with funds from the Suppression of the religious orders that with the acquisition of private libraries (including the R and the theatrical library Lucchesi Palli); in 1910, there was incorporated into the workshop of Herculaneum established by Charles of Bourbon to guard and play the papyri found in the excavations of Ercolano. In 1922, at the suggestion of Benedetto Croce, was moved to the present location of the Royal Palace. In those years were annexed to the library of the National Museum of San Martino, the Brancacciana, the provincial, the St. James and, as a result of the Treaty of Saínt Germain and the artistic Convention of Vienna, returned to Naples the precious manuscripts in 1718 Charles VI of Austria had made forcibly transfer in Vienna, called "Viennese ex". Further acquisitions from recent years, as the Doria Fund or collecting Parmar and numerous other aimed at the development and documentation of southern culture in all its various aspects.