The exhibition is divided into two main sections. The first is the Antiquarium which were transferred the public and private collections that make up the core of the Museum. In order: the Ball, the Casuccini Collection collection Bargagli Petrucci, the Chigi Zondadari Collection, Honey collection, the collection of the Accademia dei Fisiocritici and the Municipal Library. It is of important archaeological collections of Siena, that emerged in the late 19th century and the first decades of this century, most materials from the territory of Siena and Chiusi.
Follows in the topographical section, which provides an overview of the Sienese territory "archaeology" with particular attention to the areas of the cultural city of Siena, the "territory of Siena", Murlo, Chianti and Val d'Elsa. Are here exhibited remarkable archaeological finds, mostly tombs in the area recovered kits as a result of excavations carried out in recent years by the Soprintendenza Archeologica della Toscana.